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Title: 27 MHz constant field dielectric warming of kidneys cryopreserved by vitrification
Author: B.G. Wowk, J. Phan, R. Pagotan, E. Galvez, G.M. Fahy
Citation: Cryobiology 115 (2024) 104893 (doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2024.104893)
Abstract: Organs cryopreserved by vitrification are exposed to the lowest possible concentration of cryoprotectants for the least time necessary to successfully avoid ice formation. Faster cooling and warming rates enable lower concentrations and perfusion times, reducing toxicity. Since warming rates necessary to avoid ice formation during recovery from vitrification are typically faster than cooling rates necessary for vitrification, warming speed is a major determining factor for successful vitrification. Dielectric warming uses an oscillating electric field to directly heat water and cryoprotectant molecules inside organs to achieve warming that’s faster and more uniform than can be achieved by heat conduction from the organ surface. This work studied 27 MHz dielectric warming of rabbit kidneys perfused with M22 vitrification solution. The 27 MHz frequency was chosen because its long wavelength and penetration depth are suitable for human organs, because it had an anticipated favorable temperature of maximum dielectric absorption in M22, and because it’s an allocated frequency for industrial and amateur use with inexpensive amplifiers available. Previously vitrified kidneys were warmed from .. 100 .C by placement in a 27 MHz electric field formed between parallel capacitor plates in a resonant circuit. Power was varied during warming to maintain constant electric field amplitude between the plates. Maximum power absorption occurred near .. 70 .C, with a peak warming rate near 150 .C/min in 50 mL total volume with approximately 500 W power. After some optimization, it was possible to warm ~13 g vitrified kidneys with unprecedentedly little injury from medullary ice formation and a favorable serum creatinine trend after transplant. Distinct behaviors of power absorption and system tuning observed as a function of temperature during warming are promising for non-invasive thermometry and future automated control of the warming process at even faster rates with user-defined temperature dependence.
Article Link https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2024.104893

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