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Title: Genetic suppression of cryoprotectant toxicity
Author: J.R. Cypser, W.S. Chick, G.M. Fahy, G.J. Schumacher, T.E. Johnson
Citation: Cryobiology 86 (2019) 95-102
Abstract: We report here a new, unbiased forward genetic method that uses transposon-mediated mutagenesis to enable the identification of mutations that confer cryoprotectant toxicity resistance (CTR). Our method is to select for resistance to the toxic effects of M22, a much-studied whole-organ vitrification solution. We report finding and characterizing six mutants that are resistant to M22. These mutants fall into six independent biochemical pathways not previously linked to cryoprotectant toxicity (CT). The genes associated with the mutations were Gm14005, Myh9, Nrg2, Pura, Fgd2, Pim1, Opa1, Hes1, Hsbp1, and Ywhag. The mechanisms of action of the mutations remain unknown, but two of the mutants involve MYC signaling, which was previously implicated in CT. Several of the mutants may up-regulate cellular stress defense pathways. Several of the M22-resistant mutants were also resistant to dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), and many of the mutants showed significantly improved survival after freezing and thawing in 10% (v/v) Me2SO. This new approach to overcoming CT has many advantages over alternative methods such as transcriptomic profiling. Our method directly identifies specific genetic loci that unequivocally affect CT. More generally, our results provide the first direct evidence that CT can be reduced in mammalian cells by specific molecular interventions. Thus, this approach introduces remarkable new opportunities for pharmacological blockade of CT.
Article Link Http://www.21CMPublications.com/PubFiles/112/2019FahyGeneticSuppression.pdf

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